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List of 38 records

1

1. Threats Human: Australia and Papua New Guinea, Australia. ...
Human pressures are low on Australian reefs as the population density is low, the reefs are mostly remote from the coast, fishing pressures are moderate to slight and in some areas virtually non-existent. In particular, the offshore atoll reefs on bo...


2. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
Fish and invertebrate populations are not recovering at the same rate as the corals on Tutuila. Night time spear fishermen began using SCUBA in 1995, greatly increasing their catches, particularly of parrotfish. This led to a territorial ban on SCUBA...


3. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. Banning of Scuba Fishing in American Samoa...
Local resource managers can often be surprised by how rapidly fishers adopt new techniques to catch fish more efficiently, and then the managers have to react rapidly to prevent serious destruction of breeding stock. Here is one example from American...


4. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
In 1999, overfishing of reef resources, coastal development and habitat destruction, and oil and hazardous waste spills in Pago Pago Harbor were the top ranked human stresses in American Samoa. Sedimentation, dumping and improper waste disposal, and ...


5. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
At a recent workshop on coral reefs in American Samoa (20584Craig et al. 1999 1), the following list of human-related threats was identified and ranked. High - Overfishing of reef resources - Coastal development and habitat destruction - Oil an...


6. Threats Human: Australia and Papua New Guinea, Australia. ...
There are few human pressures on the extensive Australian reefs, mainly due to the low population density of relatively wealthy people who do not depend on the reefs for subsistence, and the high level of community support for resource management. ...


7. Threats Human: Australia and Papua New Guinea, Australia (West). ...
OVER- FISHING OF TROCHUS AND BÊCHE-DE-MER OFF WESTERN AUSTRALIA Stocks of trochus and bêche-de-mer have been heavily fished on many of the world’s reefs over the last 100 years. Bêche-de-mer, also known as holothurians, trepang, or sea cucumbers, ha...


8. Threats Human: Australia and Papua New Guinea, Australia. ...
Inshore reefs of the GBR are showing signs of stress from sediment and nutrient pollution (nitrate and phosphate) due to over grazing of cattle and sheep, runoff from sugar-cane and banana farming, and domestic sewage. Now tourist resorts and cruise ...


9. Threats Human: Australia and Papua New Guinea, Australia. ...
Historically, Indonesian fishers exploited bêche-de-mer, trochus and shark fins from Timor Sea reefs. The Ashmore Reef system was heavily fished because it is relatively close to Indonesia. The new management plan (2002) bans fishing within the reser...


10. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
Two trends in these fisheries are that subsistence fishing has been declining steadily over the past two decades as villagers shift from a subsistence, to a cash-based economy, and coral reef fish and invertebrate resources have declined significantl...


11. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
The Coral Reef Advisory Group identified population growth as a major threat to coral reefs, especially on Tutuila where there are more than 1000 people per km2. Streams carry sediments and nutrients to coastal waters and most villages have experienc...


12. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
Ten 30 m foreign-flag longline fishing boats grounded in the territory between 1991 and 1993. Monitoring of the 1993 damage site on Rose Atoll indicated the grounding killed about 30% of the atoll’s base of crustose coralline algae and caused a phase...


13. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
The impact of two sewage outfalls on Saipan (Agingan and Sadog Tasi) is not well known, but it is hypothesised that the Sadog Tasi outfall is partially responsible for the poor condition of the reefs outside Garapan. Reverse osmosis units discharge n...


14. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
Most of the population of American Samoa resides on Tutuila. However, only approximately one-third of the land area has a slope of less than 30%. As a result, the population density of the island is 1,350 people per km2, which surpasses the populatio...


15. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
Most of the population of American Samoa resides on Tutuila. However, only approximately one-third of the land area has a slope of less than 30%. As a result, the population density of the island is 1,350 people per km2, which surpasses the populatio...


16. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
Pollution from human activities has directly impacted the coastal resources of American Samoa, with the most obvious evidence of this in Pago Pago Harbor. Historical industrial, commercial, and military activity in the harbor led to coastal pollution...


17. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
There is relatively little tourism in American Samoa and it appears that it will be some years before the Territory enters the mainstream of South Pacific tourism, as has nearby Fiji (400,800 tourists in 2003; Fiji Tourism, http://www.bulafiji.com/...


18. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
Attempts to get coral reef products to off-island markets occur periodically, but there has been little development in these efforts, primarily due to the high cost of getting fresh or live shipments to markets in Hawaii and beyond, as well as the li...


19. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
Shipping and Grounding In the past decade, 10 groundings of fishing vessels, all large (>30 m) foreign-flagged longliners, occurred in the Territory. Nine occurred in Pago Pago Harbor during Hurricane Val in 1991 and their rusting hulls remained on ...


20. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
Marine debris is not presently a major problem except in the industrialized Pago Pago Harbor. In addition to a 57-year old sunken ship (U.S.S. Chehalis) in the harbor that may still contain a fuel load, the shallow and deep harbor bottom is littered...


21. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
No security training activities occur in the Territory....


22. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
No oil and gas exploration activities occur in the Territory....


23. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
Population growth has been identified as a major threat to coral reefs in the Territory (Figure 11.7USReef_2005_Figure_213.gif2). The current population of 63,000 is increasing at a rapid rate of 2.1% per year. Most people in the Territory (96%) live...


24. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
The data currently available indicate that streams in densely populated areas of Tutuila exhibit higher nutrient levels (e.g., TN, TP) than streams in less-populated areas. These streams transport nutrients to the near shore and reef flat areas. The ...


25. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
Many activities have occurred in Pago Pago Harbor during this period, including the construction of two large tuna canneries in 1954 and 1963. The tuna canneries discharged increasing volumes of wastewater into the harbor, causing eutrophication unti...


26. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
Coral reefs in Pago Pago harbor were severely damaged by massive human impacts from the 1950s to 1990s including dredging, infilling, sediment runoff, and the discharge of tuna cannery wastes. A transect started in 1917 on the reef flat at Aua is one...


27. Threats Human: Australia and Papua New Guinea, Australia. ...
Western Australia -Other pressures include fishing (recreational, commercial and illegal foreign fishing), major resource development (including ports), pollution, localised recreational use, coral bleaching, and outbreaks of the coral eating snail...


28. Threats Human: Australia and Papua New Guinea, Australia. ...
Great Barrier Reef: Although the GBR is in relatively good condition and has world best practice management, it faces on-going challenges. Many components of the GBR ecosystem may be highly vulnerable to climate change including increasing evidenc...


29. Threats Human: Australia and Papua New Guinea, Australia. ...
The Dampier Archipelagocontains coral communities that are subject to many human stresses. The mining towns of Dampier and Karratha have the highest per capita boat ownership in WA along with rapid industrialisation, including a major dredging projec...


30. Threats Human: Australia and Papua New Guinea, Australia. ...
Ningaloo Reef faces pressures from storms and cyclones, pollution, local fishing and recreational use (such as anchor damage), coastal development and introduced species (such as foxes that take newly hatched turtles)....


31. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
Sedimentation is a significant potential threat to the reefs of American Samoa. The islands are very steep and rainfall is often heavy. Currently, steep slopes are almost completely covered by dense native vegetation except in areas cleared for agric...


32. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
Currently there are seven National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permitted discharges in American Samoa. The permitted discharges include treated wastewater from Tutuila’s two wastewater treatment plants, effluent from the two tuna canneries...


33. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
There continues to be relatively little tourism in American Samoa. Only two flights a week operate between Honolulu, HI and Pago Pago International Airport for most of the year. There are several flights daily between American Samoa and neighboring i...


34. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
There is no trade in coral and live reef species at this time....


35. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
As reported in 25243Craig et al. (2005)1, nine foreign-flagged longliners were grounded on reefs in Pago Pago Harbor during Hurricane Val in 1991. They were removed in 2000 by building a causeway for machinery to reach each longliner for removal. Dur...


36. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
A limited amount of marine debris washes in from offshore and is deposited on American Samoa’s coral reefs. The bulk of marine debris in the territory originates from land-based activities. Local resource management agencies and community groups orga...


37. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
Security training activities are not considered a major threat to coral reef ecosystems in American Samoa....


38. Threats Human: Micronesia, American Samoa. ...
No oil and gas exploration occurs in American Samoa....


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