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1 . Federated States of Micronesia     Federated States of Micronesia
This country consists of a vast and scattered chain of islands (with Palau also referred to as the Caroline Islands) stretching some 2 900 kilometers from east to west. Politically they are independent, but remain in a “compact of free association” with the USA. Although the total land area is small, there are some 600 islands with diverse geological origins. The total reef area is very large indeed, over 5 000 square kilometers, but remains very poorly known.

There are four states. The State of Yap, in the west, is centered on Yap itself, a large island group with four tightly associated islands formed from uplifted crustal material, including both volcanic and metamorphic rock, and reaching a height of 174 meters above sea level. It is surrounded by a broad reef which is part barrier and part fringing in structure, with lagoon development on the reef flat in some areas. The other islands and reefs in the State of Yap are predominantly atolls with associated islands. They include the two large atolls of Ulithi and Ngulu, and also the small uplifted atoll of Fais. The state of Chuuk (Truk) is dominated by the near-atoll of Chuuk itself, which includes a scattering of high volcanic islands encircled by a barrier reef, the whole structure being some 85 kilometers across its widest axis. This state also incorporates a number of other large atolls, notably Namonuito in the northwest, the Hall Islands (comprising the two atolls of Murilo and Nomwin and the coral platform and island of Fayu), and the Mortlock Islands to the south (a complex of three atolls). Pohnpei is a large volcanic island reaching 798 meters above sea level, and is surrounded by a well developed barrier reef. This state also includes eight other atolls, mostly widely spaced and with only a scattering of small cays on their atoll rims. The easternmost state in the country consists of the single island and reef complex of Kosrae. This is another high volcanic island, surrounded by fringing reefs. In addition to the reefs and islands described there are several areas of relatively shallow banks where reef communities may be well developed, notably between Yap and Chuuk. The climate is similar to that of Palau, with warm moist conditions and northeasterly trade winds dominating from November to June, and more variable conditions the rest of the year.

The reefs are of critical importance as a source of food throughout the country. Close to urban areas there is some overfishing and there have been problems with blast fishing. Clams, in particular giant clams, are declining and have been completely eliminated in some areas. There are ongoing efforts to establish giant clam mariculture at a national center in Kosrae. Trochus harvesting is also an important economic activity in all areas. Coastal development and associated pollution are again localized problems on the largest islands, but for the most part the reefs remain in good condition. Many reefs are owned and managed at the level of the individual villages. There are no permanent protected areas other than a few small trochus sanctuaries.
Source: Spalding, M.D., C. Ravilious and E.P. Green , 2001 , World Atlas of Coral Reefs . Prepared at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. University of California Press,Berkeley,USA.421p. (See Document)

2 . Federated States of Micronesia     Federated States of Micronesia
From east to west, the Freely Associated States include the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), and the Republic of Palau. The FSM and Palau are known as the Caroline Islands, which span 2,500 km and are among the longest island chains in the world. All of these Micronesian islands were formerly a part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands administered by the United States after World War II (WWII). All three countries achieved independence within the past 25 years but retain close economic and strategic ties to the U.S. (Hezel, 1995). Although the process was initiated as early as 1979, the Compact of Free Association between the U.S. and the RMI and FSM did not go into effect until 1986; the Compact of Free Association between the U.S. and the Republic of Guam was effective in 1995.

The FSM is comprised of four states, from east to west; Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk, and Yap (Figure 14.1). Each island or group has its own language, customs, local government, and traditional system for managing marine resources. The FSM has both high islands and atolls, and islanders have a strong dependence on coral reefs and marine resources, both economically and culturally. The islands support three basic reef formations: fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls, which correspond to the stage of reef development at each island.

Kosrae is a single volcanic island with a land mass of 109 km2 and a maximum elevation of 629 m. It is among the least developed of the U.S. Territories and Freely Associated States, with approximately 7,700 people residing there. Kosrae is surrounded by a fringing reef and has a single harbor. In areas where the reef flat is wide, there are a number of large solution holes, some of which support extensive coral development. The reef is narrow along the east and south coasts, but wide enough along the west and north coasts to nearly be considered a barrier reef. The island is surrounded by coastal mangrove forest and extensive fringing reefs. Kosrae’s reefs and mangroves are considered some of the healthiest in Micronesia and support a small but growing diving and ecotourism industry (currently about 1000 visitors per year). However, recent coastal development and land use patterns have resulted in coastal erosion and degradation of the coastal mangrove ecosystem, placing the health of Kosrae’s reefs at risk.

The volcanic island of Pohnpei, the site of the FSM capital, is the largest island in the FSM (345 km2) and along with eight smaller island and atolls, makes up the state of Pohnpei. Pohnpei Island has a well-developed barrier reef and associated lagoon. Chuuk State (formerly known as Truk) is made up of 15 inhabited islands and atolls, and is famous for the Japanese wrecks that were sunk in the lagoon during WWII. Chuuk Lagoon is the largest atoll in the FSM and serves as the population and political center of Chuuk State.

Yap State has a main island with a land area of approximately 100 km2, and includes an additional 15 islands and atolls. The lifestyle of Yap islanders is among the most traditional in the FSM, with a highly sophisticated marine tenure and marine resource management system.

The population of the FSM has increased in the past several decades (Figure 14.3), with 50% of the population residing in Chuuk State (FSM Division of Statistics, 2002). By 2000, the average population density reached 395 persons per mi2 in 2000 (FSM Division of Statistics, 2002). However, since the signing of the Compact of Free Association with the U.S. in 1986, the effect of the population increase has been mitigated by emigration of Micronesians to pursue education and employment opportunities in U.S. states and territories. Guam, Hawaii, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and are the primary destinations for Micronesians who leave to live and work abroad.

Source: Hasurmai, M., E. Joseph, S. Palik, and K. Rikim , 2005 , The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Federated States of Micronesia. . p.387-398 in Waddell, J. (ed.), 2005. The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 11. NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment’s Biogeography Team. Silver Spring, MD. 522 pp. (See Document)

3 . Federated States of Micronesia     Federated States of Micronesia
Tourism and recreation have increased in the FSM, with a peak in visitor arrivals of 20,501 in 2000 (FSM Division of Statistics, 2004). According to the FSM Division of Statistics, total international visitors to FSM in 2003 was 18,168 people. Approximately 72% of visitors were citizens of the U.S. (41%) or Japan (31%). The FSM Visitors Board maintains an informative and attractive website (FSM Visitors Board, http://www.visit-fsm.org, Accessed 1/31/05) to help guide potential visitors to the country and has established Visitors Bureau offices in each state. Overseas tourism offices are co-located with Embassy or Consul offices in Guam, Honolulu, Tokyo, Fiji, and Washington, D.C. Each of the four states in the FSM have deep draft harbors and modern jet airfields served by Continental Airlines, a major U.S. carrier. A range of accomodations, from simple traditional huts to fancy hotels and luxury resorts, can be found in each state with online booking often available. In addition, three live aboard dive vessels are offering cruises in Chuuk in 2005. Diving is one of the most popular activities for visitors who are drawn to the abundant marine life in the FSM and the numerous planes and ships that were sunk, especially in Chuuk Lagoon, during WWII.
Source: Hasurmai, M., E. Joseph, S. Palik, and K. Rikim , 2005 , The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Federated States of Micronesia. . p.387-398 in Waddell, J. (ed.), 2005. The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 11. NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment’s Biogeography Team. Silver Spring, MD. 522 pp. (See Document)

4 . Federated States of Micronesia     Federated States of Micronesia
The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) is comprised of 607 islands found within the states of Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei and Yap, covering 1.6 million km2 of ocean. FSM has a total landmass of 702 km2 comprised of high volcanic islands, low reef islands and atolls. Each island or group has its own language, customs, local government, and traditional system for managing marine resources. Islanders have a strong cultural and economic dependence on coral reefs resources (Figure 14.1).
Source: Goldberg, J., K. Adams, J. Albert, J. Asher, P. Brown, V. Brown, D. Burdick, B. Carroll, P. Craig, D. Fenner, C. Fillmed, V. Fread, M. Gawel, A. George, Y. Golbuu, L. Goldman, C. Graham, A. Hall, M. Hasurmai, L. Jacob, D. Jacobson, E. Joseph, J. Kenyon, W. Kostka, T. Leberer, M. Luckymis, E. Lundblad, S. Malakai, J. Maragos, A. Marcus, S. Marino, D. Mathias, J. Mcilwain, J. Miller, D. Minton, M. Nadon, S. Palik, N. Pioppi, L. Raymundo, B. Richards, M. Sabater, R. Schroeder, P. Schupp, E. Smith, T. Zgliczynski and B. Zgliczynski , 2008 , Status of Coral Reef Resources in Micronesia and American Samoa: 2008 . In: Wilkinson, C. (ed.). Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2008. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Center, Townsville, Australia. p199-212. (See Document)

5 . Federated States of Micronesia     Federated States of Micronesia
The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) is comprised of 607 islands found within four states. From east to west, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk and Yap span 1.6 million km2 of the western Pacific Ocean from 1.0-9.90 N longitude and 138.2-162.60 E latitude (Figure 13.1). Each island or group has its own language, customs, local government and traditional system for managing marine resources. The FSM has a total landmass of 702 km2 comprised of both high islands and atolls, with land elevation ranging from sea level to about 760 m (2,500 ft; FSM National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plan, 2003). Trade winds prevail from December through April, with periods of weaker winds and doldrums occurring from May to November. Rainfall is extremely high on the high volcanic islands of Kosrae, Pohnpei and Chuuk, and can exceed 10 m (400 in) a year (South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 1993; Lindsay and Edward, 2000). The islands support three basic reef formations: fringing reefs, barrier reefs and atolls (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1985; USACE, 1986;USACE, 1987; USACE, 1988; USACE, 1989a; USACE, 1989b). Islanders have a strong dependence on coral reefs and marine resources, both economically and culturally (Falanruw, 2004; FSM, 2004; FSM, 2006; The Nature Conservancy, 2003).



The state of Kosrae is a single volcanic island with a land mass of 109 km2 and a maximum elevation of 629 m. Kosrae is surrounded by a fringing reef and has three harbors. In areas where the reef flat is wide, there are a number of large solution holes, some of which support extensive coral development (USACE, 1987). The reef is narrow along the east and south coasts, but nearly wide enough along the west and north coasts to be considered a barrier reef. The island is surrounded by coastal mangrove forest and extensive fringing reefs. Kosrae’s reefs and mangroves are considered some of the healthiest in Micronesia (Donaldson et al., 2007) and support a small but growing SCUBA diving and ecotourism industry. However, recent coastal development and land use patterns have resulted in some coastal erosion and degradation of the coastal mangrove ecosystem, placing the health of Kosrae’s reefs at risk (Maragos, 1993).The volcanic island of Pohnpei, the site of the FSM capital, is the largest island in the FSM (345 km2) and along with eight smaller islands and atolls, makes up the state of Pohnpei. Pohnpei Island has a well-developed barrier reef and associated lagoon (Figure 13.2). Pohnpei has outstanding biological significance. It is one of the few central Pacific high island "bridges" that enabled marine and terrestrial life to migrate from the Indo-Malay region into the Pacific. This characteristic, along with its geographic isolation, has resulted in high levels of species diversity and endemism (FSM NBSAP, 2003). Pohnpei’s extensive reefs and lagoon feature a wide diversity of productive and relatively intact natural habitats, including barrier reefs, fringing reef flats, reef passages, seagrass beds and mangroves. These habitats support a remarkable abundance of marine life, including more than 650 species of fish and nearly 350 species of coral (Allen, 2005; Turak and DeVantier, 2005). Pohnpei boasts the world’s lowest dwarf cloud forest at 450 m elevation. Pohnpei’s Nanmeir en Salapwuk Valley holds what is considered to be the largest intact lowland tropical forest in the Pacific outside of Hawaii. The people of Pohnpei, like those in many developing Pacific nations, depend on marine resources for subsistence and cash income.



The state of Chuuk is made up of five island regions: Chuuk Lagoon, Mortlocks, Pattiw, Halls and Nomunweito. The state makes up half of the total FSM population (Figure 13.3), and the Chuukese people are highly dependent on the marine environment for subsistence. Although Chuuk has extensive coral reef resources (TNC, 2003), it has very limited economic resources. Chuuk Lagoon is the largest atoll in the FSM and serves as the population and political center of Chuuk State.



Yap State contains four main islands known as Yap Proper or Wa’ab, with a land area of approximately 100 km2, and an additional 15 islands and atolls. The lifestyle of Yap islanders is among the most traditional in the FSM, with a highly sophisticated marine tenure and marine resource management system (Smith, 1994). The Yap outer islands consist of three raised coralline islands and 12 coral atolls. Two of the raised islands (Fais and Satawal) and nine of the atolls (Ngulu, Ulithi, Sorol, Eauripik, Woleai, Ifaluk, Faraulep, Elato and Lamotrek) are inhabited. The fringing reef surrounding Wa’ab is broad and mostly shallow (<3 m) but in some places reaches depths >10 m (Orcutt et al., 1989).
Source: George, A., M. Luckymis, S. Palik, K. Adams, E. Joseph, D. Mathias, S. Malakai, M.R. Nakayama, C. Graham, K. Rikim, A. Marcus, J. Albert, V. Fread, M. Hasurmai, C. Fillmed, W. Kostka, A. Takesy, T. Leberer and S. Slingsby , 2008 , The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Federated States of Micronesia. pp.419-436 . In: J.E. Waddell and A.M. Clarke (eds.), The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2008. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 73. NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment's Biogeography Team. Silver Spring, MD. 569 pp. (See Document)

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