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1 . Guam     Guam
Guam is a U.S. territory located at 13°28' N, 144°45' E and is the southernmost island in the Mariana Archipelago. It is the largest island in Micronesia, with a land mass of 560 km2 and a maximum elevation of approximately 405 m. The northern portion of the island is relatively flat and consists primarily of uplifted limestone. The southern half of the island is primarily volcanic, with more topographic relief and large areas of highly erodible lateritic soils.

The island underwent a development boom in the late 1980s and early 1990s, resulting in a 15.4% increase in the past ten years to its current population of 154.8 thousand (U.S. Census Bureau 2000). Additionally over 1.4 million tourists visit the island each year (OIA 1997).

Tourism, primarily from Japan and other Asian countries, is the largest industry on island. In 1990, tourist expenditures contributed $936 million to Guam’s economy (UNESCAP 2002). Hence, coral reefs and associated marine recreation are of substantial economic value, contributing over $80 million per year.
Source: Spalding, M.D., C. Ravilious and E.P. Green , 2001 , World Atlas of Coral Reefs . Prepared at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. University of California Press,Berkeley,USA.421p. (See Document)

2 . Guam     Guam
INTRODUCTION AND SETTING

This report is an assessment of the status of coral reef ecosystems in Guam from 2002 to 2004. Data on coral reef ecosystems were synthesized from assessments and monitoring programs conducted by local and federal organizations. Included in the report are assessments of the environmental and anthropogenic stressors affecting coral reefs, information on data gathering activities and the condition of coral reef ecosystem resources, a description of current conservation management activities, and overall conclusions and recommendations to monitor and manage coral reef ecosystems better in the future.

Guam, a U.S. territory located at 13o 28΄N, 144o 45΄E, is the southernmost island in the Mariana Archipelago. It is the largest island in Micronesia, with a land mass of 560 km2 and a maximum elevation of approximately 405 m (Figure 16.1). It is also the most heavily populated island in Micronesia, with a population of about 164,000 people (July 2003 estimate). The northern portion of the island is relatively flat and consists primarily of uplifted limestone. The island’s principle source aquifer "floats" on denser sea water within the limestone plateau. It is recharged from rainfall percolating through surface soils (Guam Water Planning Committee,1998). The average annual rainfall is 218 cm (NOAA National Weather Service, www.prh.noaa.gov, Accessed 4/17/04). The southern half of the island is primarily volcanic, with more topographic relief and large areas of highly erodible lateritic soils (SCS, 1988). This topography creates a number of watersheds throughout the southern areas which are drained by 96 rivers (Best and Davidson, 1981).
Source: Porter, V., T. Leberer, M. Gawel, J. Gutierrez, D. Burdick, V. Torres, and E. Lujan , 2005 , The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of Guam . p.442-487 in Waddell, J. (ed.), 2005. The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 11. NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment’s Biogeography Team. Silver Spring, MD. 522 pp. (See Document)

3 . Guam     Guam
Tourism

Guam’s coral reefs are an important component of the island’s tourism industry. The reefs and the protection that they provide make Guam a popular tourist destination for Asian travelers. According to the Guam Economic Development Authority, the tourism industry accounts for up to 60% of the government’s annual revenues and provides more than 20,000 direct and indirect jobs. Guam’s primary tourist market is Asia, with the majority (70-80%) of tourists arriving from Japan. As such, Guam’s economy is tied to that of Asia, which has suffered a series of setbacks starting in the early 1990s involving the Asian economic crisis, a massive earthquake and several devastating typhoons, the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak, and the war in Iraq that began in 2003. Despite these events, Guam still hosted nearly one million visitors in 2003 (GVB, 2004), and expects to host over one million in 2004 (GHRA,2004).
Source: Porter, V., T. Leberer, M. Gawel, J. Gutierrez, D. Burdick, V. Torres, and E. Lujan , 2005 , The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of Guam . p.442-487 in Waddell, J. (ed.), 2005. The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 11. NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment’s Biogeography Team. Silver Spring, MD. 522 pp. (See Document)

4 . Guam     Guam
Tourism and Recreation

A total of 909,506 people visited Guam in 2003, representing a decrease of 14% from the number of visitors in 2002 (GVB, 2004). Based on visitor data collected from the first two months of 2004, visitor arrivals are expected to exceed one million (GHRA, 2004). According to the December 2003 Visitor’s Arrival Statistical Report, 77% of the visitors came to the island for pleasure. A previous exit survey of Japanese visitors noted that the highest rated optional tourism categories were: parasailing, health spas, underwater observation, and
jet-skiing (GVB, 2001). This suggests that marine resources are very important to Guam’s tourism industry. There are a number of recreational activities that utilize or impact coral reefs, including snorkeling and scuba diving, charter fishing, and jet skiing.
Source: Porter, V., T. Leberer, M. Gawel, J. Gutierrez, D. Burdick, V. Torres, and E. Lujan , 2005 , The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of Guam . p.442-487 in Waddell, J. (ed.), 2005. The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 11. NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment’s Biogeography Team. Silver Spring, MD. 522 pp. (See Document)

5 . Guam     Guam
This U.S. territory is the most southern, largest and most populated island in the Mariana Archipelago and in all of Micronesia with 173,500 people living on 560 km2. Guam has more than 5,100 marine species, including 1,000 nearshore fish species and 300 species of hard coral. The primary threats to Guam’s coral reefs include runoff from land, storm activity and over-fishing, as well as other threats including crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) outbreaks, coral diseases, dredging, boat groundings, marine debris, coral bleaching, and recreational misuse and overuse. The plans to expand the military presence on Guam pose significant threats to coral reef resources due to a projected population increase of up to 60,000 people and numerous associated construction projects.
Source: Goldberg, J., K. Adams, J. Albert, J. Asher, P. Brown, V. Brown, D. Burdick, B. Carroll, P. Craig, D. Fenner, C. Fillmed, V. Fread, M. Gawel, A. George, Y. Golbuu, L. Goldman, C. Graham, A. Hall, M. Hasurmai, L. Jacob, D. Jacobson, E. Joseph, J. Kenyon, W. Kostka, T. Leberer, M. Luckymis, E. Lundblad, S. Malakai, J. Maragos, A. Marcus, S. Marino, D. Mathias, J. Mcilwain, J. Miller, D. Minton, M. Nadon, S. Palik, N. Pioppi, L. Raymundo, B. Richards, M. Sabater, R. Schroeder, P. Schupp, E. Smith, T. Zgliczynski and B. Zgliczynski , 2008 , Status of Coral Reef Resources in Micronesia and American Samoa: 2008 . In: Wilkinson, C. (ed.). Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2008. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Center, Townsville, Australia. p199-212. (See Document)

6 . Guam     Guam
The total economic value of coral reef resources on Guam in 2005-2006 was between $85-164 million per year, with a core value of US$127 million/yr. Tourism revenue accounted for nearly 75% of this, while other non-consumptive uses, such as coastal protection, diving/snorkeling, and amenity value, each accounted for approximately 7%. The contribution of extractive uses like reef fisheries was almost negligible (3.1%) compared to non-extractive use values. Guam is also participating in the Micronesia Challenge.
Source: Goldberg, J., K. Adams, J. Albert, J. Asher, P. Brown, V. Brown, D. Burdick, B. Carroll, P. Craig, D. Fenner, C. Fillmed, V. Fread, M. Gawel, A. George, Y. Golbuu, L. Goldman, C. Graham, A. Hall, M. Hasurmai, L. Jacob, D. Jacobson, E. Joseph, J. Kenyon, W. Kostka, T. Leberer, M. Luckymis, E. Lundblad, S. Malakai, J. Maragos, A. Marcus, S. Marino, D. Mathias, J. Mcilwain, J. Miller, D. Minton, M. Nadon, S. Palik, N. Pioppi, L. Raymundo, B. Richards, M. Sabater, R. Schroeder, P. Schupp, E. Smith, T. Zgliczynski and B. Zgliczynski , 2008 , Status of Coral Reef Resources in Micronesia and American Samoa: 2008 . In: Wilkinson, C. (ed.). Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2008. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Center, Townsville, Australia. p199-212. (See Document)

7 . Guam     Guam
Guam, a U.S. territory located at 13°28’ N, 144°45’ E, is the southernmost island in the Mariana Archipelago (Figure 15.1).It is the largest island in Micronesia, with a land mass of 560 km2, and has a maximum elevation of approximately 405 m and a total shoreline length of 244 km. Guam is a volcanic island completely surrounded by a coralline limestone plateau. The relatively flat northern half of the island, which is primarily comprised of uplifted limestone, is the site of the island’s principle aquifer. The southern half of the island has more topographic relief and is comprised mainly of volcanic rock, with areas of highly erodible lateritic soils. The hilly topography creates numerous watersheds drained by 96 rivers (Best and Davidson, 1981).



Guam is the most heavily populated island in Micronesia, with an estimated population in 2007 of about 173,500 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2007). In 2000, the U.S. Census Bureau predicted the population growth rate to steadily decrease over the next 50 years, but this estimate did not take into account the planned movement of roughly 26,000 additional military personnel and dependents to Guam by 2014 (Helber, Hastert and Fee, Planners, 2006). Such an influx, coupled with associated migration to Guam by those seeking economic gain from the expansion, would increase the existing population by up to 38% in less than 10 years, potentially pushing the total population to over 230,000 (Guam Civilian Military Task Force, 2007).



The island typically experiences easterly trade wind conditions (10-15 mph) and associated east-northeast ocean swell of small (1-2 m), short period (3-10 seconds) waves. The mean annual temperature on Guam is 28°C (82°F), with a mean annual rainfall of approximately 260 cm or 102 in (Lander and Guard, 2003). The dry season extends from December until June, while the wet season falls between July and November. Sea surface temperatures around Guam range from about 27-30°C, with higher temperatures measured on the reef flats and in portions of the lagoons (Paulay, 2003). Guam lies within an El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) core region, which experiences interannual variations of rainfall and drought-like conditions in years following El Niño events. Maximum annual temperatures on Guam during El Niño periods tend to be cooler than average when compared to non El Niño periods (NOAA PIFSC-CRED, unpub. Data).
Source: Burdick, D., V. Brown, J. Asher, M. Gawel, L. goldman, A. Hall, J. Kenyon, T. Leberer, E. Lundblad, J. Mcllwain, J. Miller, D. Minton, M. Nadon, N. Pioppi, L. Raymundo, B. Richards, R. Schroeder, P. Schupp, E. Smith and B. Zgliczynski , 2008 , The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of Guam. pp. 465-510 . In: J.E. Waddell and A.M. Clarke (eds.), The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2008. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 73. NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment's Biogeography Team. Silver Spring, MD. 569 pp. (See Document)

8 . Guam     Guam
Guam Coral Reef Economic Valuation Study



In 2005-2006, an international team of researchers contracted by the UOGML carried out a comprehensive economic valuation of the coral reefs and associated resources of Guam (van Beukering et al., 2007). The aim of the study was to provide much-needed information about the economic importance of Guam’s reefs, allowing decision makers to formulate more effective policies utilizing limited funds. The study assessed the value of five main coral reef uses on Guam: 1) extractive uses, such as fisheries; 2) non-extractive uses, such as recreation/tourism; 3) cultural/traditional uses; 4)education; and 5) research indirect uses, such as shoreline and infrastructure protection. In addition to estimating the total economic value, the researchers also investigated the underlying motives and mechanisms behind the total economic value by focusing on people’s relationship with the marine ecosystems, local "willingness to pay" (WTP) for coral reef conservation and the spatial variation of reef-associated economic values and threats.



Methods

The researchers gathered existing data from a variety of sources, including tourist exit surveys, real estate databases, and DAWR creel surveys. To supplement these data, they conducted a household survey of 400 Guam residents to assess the cultural value of coral reefs. For households that fish, a supplemental survey about fishing was conducted. At the end of the survey, the researchers conducted a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) to determine individuals WTP for services that do not have market values. These data were analyzed to determine the total economic value of Guam’s reefs, representing the entire economic importance of Guam’s marine environment. The researchers used a variety of techniques to determine the value of six uses: tourism, diving and snorkeling, fishing, amenity value, coastal protection and biodiversity; they also used Geographic Information System tools to determine the spatial variation of reef-associated economic values and threats.



Results and Discussion-Household Survey

The results of the survey indicated that several recreational activities link local residents to marine ecosystems. Over 92% of the population uses Guam’s nearshore resources such as beaches and reef flats for recreational activities. According to the survey results, fishing has not declined in popularity (between 35% and 45% of respondents were active fishermen) despite depleted fish stocks. The survey found that the majority of fishermen fished because they enjoyed it and because it strengthens social bonds. Despite external influences, freshly-caught fish is still an essential part of local diets. At the time of the study, more than half of all consumed fish was obtained from stores and restaurants, while about 40% came from immediate or extended family or friends. Fishermen spent around $165 a month to fish; only a small number of fishermen on Guam sell part of their catch, indicating that fishing in Guam is neither a subsistence, nor a commercial, activity. The survey showed that most local residents have witnessed a degradation of the marine environment in recent decades, with declines in water quality and fish abundance being the most cited concerns. Residents identified increased runoff, poor development practices and leakage from broken sewage pipes as the three main causes. Residents were also asked for solutions and suggested improvements to the sewer system, increased environmental education and stricter law enforcement.



Discrete Choice Experiment

The results of the DCE indicate that significant economic values are associated with three non-market benefits evaluated in the survey: local recreational use, abundance of culturally significant fish species, and noncommercial fishery values. Guam’s residents appeared to place a similar value on the reefs’ ability to provide local recreational benefits and supply culturally significant fish species. The results also indicated that maintaining reef fish and seafood stocks at a level that can support the culture of food sharing was very important. Interestingly, the DCE revealed that WTP for fish catches sufficient to share with family and friends was nearly triple the WTP for a catch large enough for the sale of fish ($92 versus $32), implying that the sharing of fish was more important than earning additional income. The DCE also revealed residents’ attitudes towards management. Guam’s residents generally supported a ban on some of the more exploitative fishing methods (e.g., night SCUBA spear fishing), but they were more concerned about managing the threat of pollution. The concern about pollution revealed in the DCE is not surprising considering pollution negatively affects both fishing and recreational beach uses, which were identified as two of the most important reef-related activities for Guam’s residents.



Total Economic Value (TEV)

The researchers determined that the TEV of Guam’s reefs is between $85-164 million/ year with a core value of $127 million/year. Table 15.11 shows the breakdown by type of reef-related value. The tourism industry in general accounts for nearly three-quarters (74%) of the TEV, followed by amenity (e.g., property values) at 7.5% and diving and snorkeling at 6.8%. As is expected for a tourism-dependent island economy, the market value of the fishery sector (3.1%) is almost negligible compared to the value provided by non-consumptive goods and services.



Spatial Variation Analysis(TEV)

A map of TEV was developed by aggregating individual maps of fisheries, tourism, recreation, amenity, biodiversity and coastal protection. The average value per square kilometer was $2 million/year, with the highest value area valued at nearly $15 million/year. The highest value reef area measures only 200 m2 , and is host to the most popular diving and snorkeling sites. A threat map was developed by aggregating maps of various threats, including sedimentation, eutro-phication, freshwater runoff, overharvest and tourist overuse to build a map depicting the spatial variation in threats to Guam’s reefs.



The results of the spatial analysis indicated that the most economically valuable reefs are, typically, the most threatened. The most valuable reefs are located within 200 m of the most popular diving and snorkeling spots. Corals adjacent to tourism areas in Tumon, Agana and Piti are also valuable due to their high level of use. Reefs in the southern part of the island have relatively high value due to tourism use, but are highly threatened due to sedimentation. The northern reefs are in better condition, but besides a few exceptions, their value is relatively low.



While the study helped identify the most valuable and most threatened reefs on Guam, and to some degree identified the type of threats endangering specific reefs, the authors suggest that, in order to provide the most economically-sound guidance to reef managers and policy-makers, the benefits and costs of various management interventions must be evaluated and sustainable sources of funding for these actions must be identified. Still, they were able to provide several policy recommendations based on the outcomes of the study, including: 1) making use of the cultural importance residents place on marine ecosystems to improve coral reef management; 2) actively involving the tourism industry in the development of sustainable coral reef management; 3) limiting the commercial consumptive use of coral reefs by prioritizing stronger enforcement of marine protected areas in Guam; and 4) prioritizing potential policy interventions in an economically sound manner.
Source: Burdick, D., V. Brown, J. Asher, M. Gawel, L. goldman, A. Hall, J. Kenyon, T. Leberer, E. Lundblad, J. Mcllwain, J. Miller, D. Minton, M. Nadon, N. Pioppi, L. Raymundo, B. Richards, R. Schroeder, P. Schupp, E. Smith and B. Zgliczynski , 2008 , The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of Guam. pp. 465-510 . In: J.E. Waddell and A.M. Clarke (eds.), The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2008. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 73. NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment's Biogeography Team. Silver Spring, MD. 569 pp. (See Document)

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