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1 . Fiji     Fiji
Fiji is a vast archipelago centered on two relatively shallow geological features, the Fiji Platform and the Lau Ridge. Geologically, the area lies on the Indo-Pacific plate close to the boundary with the Pacific plate, in an area of relatively complex geology and fracturing. The two largest islands of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, together with quite a number of smaller ones, lie on the relatively shallow Fiji Platform. Fringing reefs surround most of Viti Levu, with the largest continuous fringing reef running for 100 kilometers along the Coral Coast on its southern shore. Offshore from eastern Viti Levu the Suva Barrier Reef follows the shelf edge up to the island of Ovalau. The northern coast of Viti Levu is dominated by a very complex array of platform reef structures and intervening channels. Running northeast at some distance west of Viti Levu is a string of high islands known as the Yasawa Group, again with an associated complex of fringing and patch reefs. These islands lie close to the edge of the Fiji Platform, and part of this shelf-edge is capped by Ethel Reef, a 30 kilometer barrier reef. Immediately south of Viti Levu is the island of Beqa, enclosed to the south and west by the Beqa Barrier Reef. Further south, the large island of Kadavu is separated from the Fiji Platform by the Kadavu Passage. This island has fringing reefs along much of its coastline, but is further dominated by a 95 kilometer long barrier reef running along its southern and eastern coasts and extending into the Great Astrolabe and North Astrolabe Reefs.

The line of the Yasawa Group in the west is continued eastwards towards Vanua Levu by Fiji’s longest barrier reef structure, the Great Sea Reef which runs along the shelf edge in a near continuous chain for over 200 kilometers, gradually converging towards the coastline of Vanua Levu at its northeastern tip. The Vatu Ira Channel between the two high islands is a tongue of deeper water, also fringed by elongated barrier reef structures including the Vanua Levu Barrier Reef along the eastern edge of this channel and up to the southern shore of Vanua Levu. Much of the southern shores of Vanua Levu are lined by fringing reefs, while the northern edge is marked by a similar complex of platform reefs to that along Viti Levu. Out to the east lies a complex of islands and reefs collectively termed the Ringgold Islands. These include several atolls, and also Budd Reef which is a nearatoll, with a group of high islets located in its lagoon. A group of reefs on the outer edge of the Ringgold Islands make up the Nukusemanu and Heemskercq Reefs, parts of which are submerged, but may be considered a nearatoll or barrier-type structure.

The Lau Islands make up the eastern edge of the Fiji group and lie at the top of the Lau Ridge, separated from the Fiji Platform by the Nanuku Channel. Most of the northern islands are high and of volcanic origin, but further south carbonate islands predominate. There are a number of atolls and near-atolls throughout the chain. The Exploring Isles make up one of the largest structures in this group, including the high island of Vanua Balavu, as well as a long barrier reef running out to the east and enclosing a number of smaller islands. Towards the center of the group the Bukatatanoa Reefs are another massive barrier reef complex. Lying considerably to the south of the main group of Lau Islands are the smaller islands of Vatoa (a high limestone island with a barrier reef) and the atoll of Vuata Vatoa. Further south again is a complex of four small reef systems including Ono-i-Lau, a small group of islands enclosed by a barrier reef.

The Koro Sea is a relatively enclosed sea between the Lau Islands and Viti Levu. There are a few islands scattered in this area. The Lomaiviti Group east of Viti Levu is mostly volcanic and has well developed fringing and barrier structures. Further south, the Moala Group is made up of three high volcanic islands with predominantly fringing reefs around them.

Far from the main islands of Fiji are three other reef areas. In the far northwest, the island of Rotuma is volcanic and has wide fringing reefs. A number of smaller islands nearby also have fringing reef structures. In the far southwest Conway Reef or Ceva-i-Ra is a small coral cay of some 200 by 50 meters on a platform reef. Finally, in the southeast, Fiji claims the Minerva Reefs, although these are also claimed by Tonga.
Source: Spalding, M.D., C. Ravilious and E.P. Green , 2001 , World Atlas of Coral Reefs . Prepared at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. University of California Press,Berkeley,USA.421p. (See Document)

2 . Fiji     Fiji
Socioeconomic surveys, by the Institute of Applied Science at 29 sites, reported that the average number of houses in a village was 54, with an average household size of 5 in villages averaging 312 people. Average monthly income for all 29 villages was FJD636 (USD400), which was mainly from selling root crops (kava, yaqona, taro, etc.) and marine resources (fish, sea cucumbers), and other paid employment.
Source: Cherie Morris and Kenneth Mackay (eds.) , 2008 , Status of the Coral Reefs in the South West Pacific: Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu . In: Wilkinson, C. (ed.). Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2008. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Center, Townsville, Australia. p177-188. (See Document)

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