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1 . Colombia     Colombia
Colombia enjoys 1 700 kilometers of Caribbean coastline, but coral reefs are restricted to less than 150 kilometers, located away from major estuaries and sediment plumes. The Caribbean Current forms a gyre in the Colombian Basin, moving water in a north to northeasterly direction off the Colombian coast. This creates localized upwellings, bringing cold water to the surface and further curtailing the distribution of coral reefs. Reefs occur off Acandi in the far west and Punto Lopez in the east, but the most extensive structures are those off Santa Marta (at Punta Betin, Isla Morro Grande, Bahía Granate, Bahía Chengue and Bahía Gayraca) and Cartagena (at Islas de San Bernardo and Islas del Rosario). Several hundred kilometers northwest of Colombia there are a number of islands and reefs which also form part of Colombia (although they actually lie closer to Nicaragua) on the Nicaraguan Rise. These include the larger populated islands of San Andrés and Providencia, but also a number of shallow reefs including those on the banks of Quitasueño, Serrana and Roncador, and the atolls of Courtown and Albuquerque.
Source: Spalding, M.D., C. Ravilious and E.P. Green , 2001 , World Atlas of Coral Reefs . Prepared at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. University of California Press,Berkeley,USA.421p. (See Document)

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