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1 . Hawaiian Islands (USA) FAO Fisheries Management     Hawaiian Islands (USA)
Fishing in the NWHI is mostly limited to two commercial fisheries: a bottomfish fishery; and a recently closed lobster trap fishery. The bottom-fish fishery targets snappers and groupers on the deep-slopes (generally deeper than 100m). Only two species, the green jobfish (Aprion virescens) and the endemic Hawaiian grouper (Epinephelus quernus) occur in shallow reef habitats and contribute substantively to NWHI bottomfish landings, with far more jobfish being taken. Existing time series data suggest no obvious pattern of temporal change for jobfish, although there is a declining trend in catch per unit effort for Hawaiian grouper in the northern fishing zone. The lobster fishery targeted the endemic Hawaiian spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus), as well as the non-endemic slipper lobster Scyllarides squammosus from 1998 to 2000, when it was closed because of growing uncertainty about the status of the stock.

A recreational catch-and-release fishery commenced in 1996 at Midway, after the Midway Naval Air Station was closed and the atoll became a USFWS National Wildlife Refuge. Giant trevally (Caranx ignobilis) and bluefin trevally, the main targets of the catch-and-release fishery, declined in abundance at Midway between 1996 and 2000, when sampling was discontinued. There are no other significant resource extraction activities in the NWHI.
Source: Friedlander, A., G. Aeby, R. Brainard, E. Brown, A. Clark, S. Coles, E. Demartini, S. Dollar, S. Godwin, C. Hunter, P. Jokiel, J. Kenyon, R. Kosaki, J. Maragos, P. Vroom, B. Walsh, I. Williams and W. Wiltse , 2004 , Status Of Coral Reefs In The Hawaiian Archipelago. . p: 411-430. in C. Wilkinson (ed.). Status of coral reefs of the world: 2004. Volume 2. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. 557 p. (See Document)

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