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1 . Australia     Australia
The coral reefs of the north and east coast of Papua New Guinea (PNG) lie within the ‘coral triangle’ that includes eastern Indonesia, the Philippines, Timor Leste and the Solomon Islands. The coral triangle is a global centre of marine biodiversity and has very high conservation value. Many reefs in PNG are close to shore and sensitive to terrestrial influences. Research and monitoring capacity in PNG is relatively low with most programs run by NGOs; such that there are few long term datasets for PNG reefs. There are also few MPAs in PNG and awareness and support for marine resource management is mostly limited to areas where NGOs have active programs such as in Kimbe Bay, Kavieng, Manus and Madang. A system of customary tenure (‘tambu’) for fringing reefs and inshore fishing resources exists in many coastal communities. Temporary closing of a reef is a historical practice that is now declining. Most reefs in PNG are in relatively good condition, although some reefs are under pressure from: sedimentation arising from poor management of mining, land clearing, oil-palm plantations and logging; over-fishing, including top predators such as sharks and invertebrates such as sea cucumbers (bêche-de-mer); the live fish trade; COTS outbreaks; and coral bleaching.
Source: Chin, A., H. Sweatman, S. Forbes, H. Perks, R. Walker, G. Jones, D. Williamson, R. Evans, F. Hartley,S. Armstrong, H. Malcolm, G. Edgar , 2008 , Status of the Coral Reefs in Australia and Papua New Guinea: 2008 . In: Wilkinson, C. (ed.). Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2008. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Center, Townsville, Australia. p159-176 (See Document)

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