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1 . American Samoa     American Samoa
The status of coral reefs in American Samoa is mixed. There are notable improvements, but other serious problems persist. Generally, corals are in good condition, having recovered from massive cyclone damage in 1991. More recent but moderate damage occurred during Hurricane Heta in 2004, but given the observed resilience of corals in the Territory and the generally low level of anthropogenic stressors (e.g., low recreational use), regrowth is expected over the next several years. Another noteworthy improvement is the removal of 10 shipwrecks off local reefs. There has also been a marked improvement in water quality in Pago Pago Harbor.

Local reefs, however, have been seriously overfished and few large fish remain. Genuine consideration needs to be given to reducing overall catches and developing effective MPAs that provide long-term protection to harvested species. Despite the resiliency of corals mentioned above, scientists are observing increases in coral bleaching and mortality, as well as areas heavily impacted by coral diseases, which have historically been rare.
Source: Craig, P., G. DiDonato, D. Fenner, and C. Hawkins , 2005 , The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of American Samoa. . p.312-337 in Waddell, J. (ed.), 2005. The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 11. NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment’s Biogeography Team. Silver Spring, MD. 522 pp. (See Document)

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